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Title Robust prediction of individual creative ability from brain functional connectivity
Author Roger E. Beaty, Yoed N. Kenett, Alexander P. Christensen, Monica D. Rosenberg, Mathias Benedek, Qunlin Chen, Andreas Fink, Jiang Qiu, Thomas R. Kwapil, Michael J. Kane, and Paul J. Silvia
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Year 2018
Abstract People’s ability to think creatively is a primary means of technological and cultural progress, yet the neural architecture of the highly creative brain remains largely undefined. Here, we employed a recently developed method in functional brain imaging analysis—connectome-based predictive modeling—to identify a brain network associated with high-creative ability, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from 163 participants engaged in a classic divergent thinking task. At the behavioral level, we found a strong correlation between creative thinking ability and self-reported creative behavior and accomplishment in the arts and sciences (r = 0.54). At the neural level, we found a pattern of functional brain connectivity related to high-creative thinking ability consisting of frontal and parietal regions within default, salience, and executive brain systems. In a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis, we show that this neural model can reliably predict the creative quality of ideas generated by novel participants within the sample. Furthermore, in a series of external validation analyses using data from two independent task fMRI samples and a large task-free resting-state fMRI sample, we demonstrate robust prediction of individual creative thinking ability from the same pattern of brain connectivity. The findings thus reveal a wholebrain network associated with high-creative ability comprised of cortical hubs within default, salience, and executive systems—intrinsic functional networks that tend to work in opposition—suggesting that highly creative people are characterized by the ability to simultaneously engage these large-scale brain networks.
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Title Verbal Creativity Correlates with the Temporal Variability of Brain Networks During the Resting State
Author Jiangzhou Sun, Zhaowen Liu, Edmund T. Rolls†, Qunlin Chen, Ye Yao, Wenjing Yang, Dongtao Wei, Qinglin Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jianfeng Feng and Jiang Qiu
Journal Cerebral Cortex
Year 2018
Abstract Creativity is the ability to see the world in new ways. Creative individuals exhibit the ability to switch between different modes of thinking and shift their mental focus. This suggests a connection between creativity and dynamic interactions of brain networks. We report here the first investigation into the relationship between the reconfiguration of dynamic brain networks during the resting state and verbal creativity using two fMRI datasets involving 574 subjects. We find that verbal creativity correlates with temporal variability of the functional-connectivity (FC) patterns of the lateral prefrontal cortex, the precuneus, and the parahippocampal gyrus. High variability of these regions indicates flexible connectivity patterns which may facilitate executive functions. Furthermore, verbal creativity correlates with the temporal variability of FC patterns within the default mode network (DMN), between the DMN and attention/sensorimotor network, and between control and sensory networks. High variability of FCs between the DMN and attention networks characterizes frequent adjustments of attention. Finally, dynamic interaction between the cerebellum and task control network also contributes to verbal creativity, suggesting a relationship between the cerebellum and creativity. This study reveals a close relationship between verbal creativity and high variability of cortical networks involved in spontaneous thought, attention and cognitive control.
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Title Only-child and non-only-child exhibit differences in creativity and agreeableness: evidence from behavioral and anatomical structural studies
Author Yang JY, Hou X, Wei DT, Wang KC, Li Y, Qiu J
Journal Brain imaging and behavior
Year 2017
Abstract Behavior and “Neuroscience shows that our gut instincts about only children are right”-more creativity but less agreeableness
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Title Longitudinal test-retest neuroimaging data from healthy young adults in southwest China
Author Liu W, Wei DT, Chen QL, Yang WJ, Meng J, Wu GR,Qiu J
Journal Scientific Data
Year 2017
Abstract The SLIM project tracked 3-years longitudinal change of brain and behavior for 581 participants (over 1000 scans) and released the collection of high-resolution MRI, and a carefully collection of behavior, cognitive and personality data. Each neuroimaging dataset includes at least one structural images, one resting-state MRI and one diffusion weighted imaging acquisition.
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Title The cooperation of the default and executive control networks contributes to creativity
Author Zhu WF,Chen QL,Xia L,Beaty.R , Yang WJ,Tian F
Journal Human Brain Mapping
Year 2017
Abstract Creativity is imperative to the progression of human civilization, prosperity, and well-being. Past creative researches tends to emphasize the default mode network (DMN) or the frontoparietal network (FPN) somewhat exclusively. However, little is known about how these networks interact to contribute to creativity and whether common or distinct brain networks are responsible for visual and verbal creativity. read more >>>
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Title Longitudinal Alterations of Frontoparietal and Frontotemporal Networks Predict Future Creative Cognitive Ability
Author Chen QL,Roger E. Beaty, Wei DT, Yang JY, Sun JZ, Liu W, Yang WJ,Zhang QL,Qiu J
Journal Cerebral Cortex
Year 2016
Abstract Creative cognition is important to academic performance and career success during late adolescence and adulthood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal data on whether brain structural development could predict improvements in creative thinking, and how such changes interact with other cognitive abilities to support creative performance. Here we examined longitudinal alterations of brain structure and their relation to creative cognitive ability in a sample of 159 healthy young adults who were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging 2–3 times over the course of 3 years. The most robust predictor of future creative ability was the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which in conjunction with baseline creative capacity showed a 31% prediction rate. Longitudinal analysis revealed that slower decreases in gray matter density within left frontoparietal and right frontotemporal clusters predicted enhanced creative ability. Moreoever, the relationship between longitudinal alterations within frontal-related clusters and improved creative ability was moderated by the right DLPFC and working memory ability. We conclude that continuous goal-directed planning and accumulated knowledge are implemented in the right DLPFC and temporal areas, respectively, which in turn support longitudinal gains in creative cognitive ability.
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Title Medial reward and lateral non-reward orbitofrontal cortex circuits change in opposite directions in depression
Author Cheng W, Edmund T. Rolls,Qiu J ,Liu W,Tang YQ,Chu-Chung Huang,XinFa Wang, Jie Zhang, Wei Lin,Lirong Zheng,JunCai Pu,Shih-Jen Tsai,Albert C. Yang,Ching-Po Lin,Fei Wang,Peng Xie ,Jianfeng Feng
Journal BRAIN
Year 2016
Abstract The first brain-wide voxel-level resting state functional connectivity neuroimaging analysis of depression is reported, with 421 patients with major depressive disorder and 488 control subjects. Resting state functional connectivity between different voxels reflects correlations of activity between those voxels and is a fundamental tool in helping to understand the brain regions with altered connectivity and function in depression. One major circuit with altered functional connectivity involved the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13, which is implicated in reward, and which had reduced functional connectivity in depression with memory systems in the parahippocampal gyrus and medial temporal lobe, especially involving the perirhinal cortex Brodmann area 36 and entorhinal cortex Brodmann area 28. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores were correlated with weakened functional connectivity of the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13. Thus in depression there is decreased reward-related and memory system functional connectivity, and this is related to the depressed symptoms. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 47/12, involved in non-reward and punishing events, did not have this reduced functional connectivity with memory systems. Second, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 47/12 had increased functional connectivity with the precuneus, the angular gyrus, and the temporal visual cortex Brodmann area 21. This enhanced functional connectivity of the nonreward/punishment system (Brodmann area 47/12) with the precuneus (involved in the sense of self and agency), and the angular gyrus (involved in language) is thus related to the explicit affectively negative sense of the self, and of self-esteem, in depression. A comparison of the functional connectivity in 185 depressed patients not receiving medication and 182 patients receiving medication showed that the functional connectivity of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 47/12 with these three brain areas was lower in the medicated than the unmedicated patients. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the increased functional connectivity of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 47/12 is related to depression. Relating the changes in cortical connectivity to our understanding of the functions of different parts of the orbitofrontal cortex in emotion helps to provide new insight into the brain changes related to depression.
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Title Training Your Brain to Be More Creative: Brain Functional and Structural Changes Induced by Divergent Thinking Training
Author Sun JZ,Chen QL,Zhang QL,LI YD,Li HJ,Wei DT,Yang WJ,Qiu j
Journal Human Brain Mapping
Year 2016
Abstract Creativity is commonly defined as the ability to produce something both novel and useful.Stimulating creativity has great significance for both individual success and social improvement.Although increasing creative capacity has been confirmed to be possible and effective at the behavioral level, few longitudinal studies have examined the extent to which the brain function and structure underlying creativity are plastic. A cognitive stimulation (20 sessions) method was used in the present study to train subjects and to explore the neuroplasticity induced by training. The behavioral results revealed that both the originality and the fluency of divergent thinking were significantly improved by training. Furthermore, functional changes induced by training were observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and posterior brain regions. Moreover, the gray matter volume (GMV) was significantly increased in the dACC after divergent thinking training. These results suggest that the enhancement of creativity may rely not only on the posterior brain regions that are related to the fundamental cognitive processes of creativity (e.g., semantic processing, generating novel associations), but also on areas that are involved in top-down cognitive control, such as the dACC and DLPFC.
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Title The Association between Resting Functional Connectivity and Visual Creativity
Author Li WF, Yang, J., Zhang, Q., Li, G., Qiu, J
Journal Scientific Reports
Year 2016
Abstract Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), the temporal correlation of intrinsic activation between different brain regions, has become one of the most fascinating field in the functional imaging studies. To better understand the association between RSFC and individual creativity, we used RSFC and the figure Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT-F) to investigate the relationship between creativity measured by TTCT and RSFC within two different brain networks, default mode network and the cognitive control network, in a large healthy sample (304). We took the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC) to be the seed regions and investigated the association across subjects between the score of TTCT-F and the strength of RSFC between these seed regions and other voxels in the whole brain. Results revealed that the strength of RSFC with the MPFC was significantly and negatively correlated with the score of TTCT-F in the precuneus. Meanwhile, we also found that the strength of RSFC with the left DLPFC was significantly and positively correlated with the score of TTCT-F in the right DLPFC. It suggests that the decreased RSFC within DMN and the increased RSFC within CCN presents a potential interaction mechanism between different region for higher creativity.
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Title Our new structure MRI study supports The Imbalance Hypothesis of Depression
Author Liu W, Mao Y, Wei DT, Yang JY, Du X, Xie P, Qiu j
Journal Neuroscience Bulletin
Year 2016
Abstract Structural Asymmetry of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Correlates with Depressive Symptoms: Evidence from Healthy Individuals and Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
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Title Prediction of trait and state anxiety by using the resting state fMRI: a longitudinal study
Author Tian X,Wei DT, Xue Du, Kangcheng Wang, Junyi Yang, Wei Liu, Jie Meng, Huijuan Liu, Guangyuan Liu, Jiang Qiu
Journal NeuroImage
Year 2016
Abstract Anxiety is a multidimensional construct that includes stable trait anxiety and momentary state anxiety, which have a combined effect on our mental and physical well being. However, the relationship between intrinsic brain activity and the feeling of anxiety, particularly trait and state anxiety, remain unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo)) to determine the effects of intrinsic brain activity on stable inter-individual trait anxiety and intra-individual state anxiety variability in a cross-sectional and test-retest study. We found that at both time points, the trait anxiety score was significantly associated with intrinsic brain activity (both the ALFF and ReHo) in the right ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ALFF of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/anterior midcingulate cortex (dACC/aMCC). More importantly, the change in intrinsic brain activity in the right insula was predictive of intra-individual state anxiety variability over a 9-month interval. The test-retest nature of this study’s design could provide an opportunity to distinguish between the intrinsic brain activity associated with state and trait anxiety. These results could deepen our understanding of anxiety from a neuroscientific perspective
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Title Abnormal Degree Centrality of Functional Hubs Associated with Negative Coping in Older--Chinese Adults Who Lost Their Only Child
Author Liu W, Huijuan Liu, Dongtao Wei, Jiangzhou Sun , Junyi Yang, , Jie Meng ,Lihong Wang , Jiang Qiu
Journal Biological Psychology
Year 2015
Abstract Brain imaging revealed the “SCAR” on the brain of parents who lost their only child
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Title Regional gray matter volume mediates the relationship between family socioeconomic status and depression-related trait in a young healthy sample.
Author Yang JY, Liu, HJ., Wei, DT., Liu, W., Meng, J., Wang, KC., Hao, lei., Qiu, J
Journal Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience,2015(In press)
Year 2015
Abstract Improve family socioeconomic status and reduce depression-related personality trait
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Title Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality.
Author Yang WJ, Cun, L.L., D, X.,Yang, J.Y., Wang, Y.,Q., Wei, D.T., Zhang, Q.L & Qiu, J.
Journal Scientific Reports
Year 2015
Abstract
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Title Individual differences in rumination in healthy and depressive samples: association with brain structure, functional connectivity and depression
Author Wang KC, Wei DT, Yang JY, Xie Peng, Hao X, Qiu J
Journal Psychological Medicine
Year 2015
Abstract Background. Rumination is an important cognitive risk factor for onset and relapse of depression. However, no studies have employed a dimensional approach in investigating the neural correlates of rumination and the relationship with depression. Method. Non-clinical healthy subjects (n = 306), who completed the classical rumination and depression scales, were studied using voxel-based morphometry and regional homogeneity (ReHo). Subsequently, mediation analysis was conducted to examine the influence of rumination on the relationship between brain structure and depression. Moreover, depressive patients (n = 60) and a control group (n = 63) of comparable age and education were studied with regions of interest that were identified in the healthy individuals. Results. For healthy individuals, regional grey-matter volume (rGMV) of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) were positively correlated with rumination. In addition, rumination had a mediating effect on the relationship between the DLPFC and PHG and depression. Moreover, ReHo analysis showed that rumination had a significantly negative correlation with functional homogeneity of DLPFC. However, compared to the control group, depressed patients showed significant decrease of rGMV in the DLPFC and PHG and there was a significant negative correlation between DLPFC volume and depressive rumination. Conclusions. Increased DLPFC volume (decreased ReHo) in healthy individuals while decreased in depression indicated the trend of DLPFC from inefficient inhibition (‘overload state’) to impaired regulatory mechanism (‘paralysis state’). This finding might elucidate when and why healthy individuals would develop sustained negative mood and depression eventually.
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Title A meta- analysis of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking using activation likelihood estimation
Author Wu X, Yang WJ, Tong DD, Sun JZ, Chen QL, Zhang M, Qiu J
Journal Human Brain Mapping
Year 2015
Abstract In this study, an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was used to conduct a quantitative investigation of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking. Based on the ALE results, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that distributed brain regions were more active under divergent thinking tasks (DTTs) than those under control tasks, but a large portion of the brain regions were deactivated. The ALE results indicated that the brain networks of the creative idea generation in DTTs may be composed of the lateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex [such as the inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and precuneus (BA 7)], anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), and several regions in the temporal cortex [such as the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 39) and left fusiform gyrus (BA 37)]. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 47) was related to selecting the loosely and remotely associated concepts and organizing them into creative ideas, whereas the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32) was related to observing and forming distant semantic associations in performing DTTs. The posterior parietal cortex may be involved in the semantic information related to the retrieval and buffering of the formed creative ideas, and several regions in the temporal cortex may be related to the stored long-term memory. In addition, the ALE results of the structural studies showed that divergent thinking was related to the dopaminergic system (e.g., left caudate and claustrum). Based on the ALE results, both fMRI and structural MRI studies could uncover the neural basis of divergent thinking from different aspects (e.g., specific cognitive processing and stable individual difference of cognitive capability).
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Title Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults
Author Li WW, Li YD, Yang WJ, Zhang QL, Wei DT, Li WF, Hitchman G, Qiu J
Journal Neuropsychologia
Year 2015
Abstract Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA.
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Title The correlation between Emotional Intelligence and gray matter volume in university students. Brain and cognition
Author Tan YF, Zhang, Q., Li, W., Wei, D., Qiao, L., Qiu, J., ... & Liu, Y.
Journal Brain and Cognition
Year 2014
Abstract A number of recent studies have investigated the neurological substrates of Emotional Intelligence (EI),but none of them have considered the neural correlates of EI that are measured using the Schutte SelfReport Emotional Intelligence Scale (SSREIS). This scale was developed based on the EI model of Salovey and Mayer (1990). In the present study, SSREIS was adopted to estimate EI. Meanwhile, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to evaluate the gray matter volume (GMV) of 328 university students. Results found positive correlations between Monitor of Emotions and VBM measurements in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, Utilization of Emotions was positively correlated with the GMV in the parahippocampal gyrus, but was negatively correlated with the VBM measurements in the fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, Social Ability had volume correlates in the vermis. These findings indicate that the neural correlates of the EI model, which primarily focuses on the abilities of individuals to appraise and express emotions, can also regulate and utilize emotions to solve problems.
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Title The neural mechanisms underlying the acute effect of cigarette smokjing on chronic smokers
Author Wang KC, Yang JY, Zhang SY, Wei DT, Hao X, Tu S, Qiu J
Journal Plos One
Year 2014
Abstract Although previous research had related structural changes and impaired cognition to chronic cigarette smoking, recent neuroimaging studies have associated nicotine, which is a main chemical substance in cigarettes, with improvements in cognitive functions (e.g. improved attention performance). However, information about the alterations of whole-brain functional connectivity after acute cigarette smoking is limited. In this study, 22 smokers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) after abstaining from smoking for 12 hours (state of abstinence, SOA). Subsequently, the smokers were allowed to smoke two cigarettes (state of satisfaction, SOS) before they underwent a second rs-fMRI. Twenty non-smokers were also recruited to undergo rs-fMRI. In addition, high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired using the same magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)scanner for all participants. The results showed that smokers had structural changes in insula, thalamus, medial frontal cortex and several regions of the default mode network (DMN) compared with non-smokers. Voxel-wise group comparisons of newly developed global brain connectivity (GBC) showed that smokers in the SOA condition had higher GBC in the insula and superior frontal gyrus compared with non-smokers. However, smokers in the SOS condition demonstrated significantly lower GBC in several regions of the DMN, as compared with smokers in the SOA condition. These results suggest that structural integrity combined with dysfunction of the DMN might be involved in relapses after a short period of time among smokers.
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Title The correlation between gray matter volume and perceived social support: A voxel-based morphometry study
Author Che XY, Wei DT, Li WF, Li HJ, Qiao L, Qiu J, Zhang QL, Liu YJ
Journal Social Neuroscience
Year 2014
Abstract Social support refers to interpersonal exchanges that include the combinations of aid, affirmation and affection. Perceived social support is a kind of subjective judgment of one’s availability of social support. In spite of the importance of perceived social support to health, however, its neural substrate remains unknown. To address this question, voxel-based morphometry was employed to investigate the neural bases of individual differences in responses to the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) in healthy volunteers (144 men and 203 women; mean age = 19.9; SD = 1.33, age range : 17–27). As a result, multiple regression analysis revealed that the PSSS scores were significantly and positively correlated with gray matter volume in a cluster that mainly included areas in posterior parts of posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral lingual cortex, left occipital lobe and cuneus. Highlysupported individuals had larger gray matter volume in these brain regions, implying a relatively high level of ability to engage in self-referential processes and social cognition. Our results provide a biological basis for exploring perceived social support particularly in relationship to various health parameters and outcomes.
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Title Synchronous activation within the default mode network correlates with perceived social support.
Author Che XW, Wei DT, Li WF, Zhang QL, Qiu J, Liu YJ. (2014).
Journal Neuropsychologia
Year 2014
Abstract Perceived social support emphasizes subjective feeling of provisions offered by family, friends and significant others. In consideration of the great significance of perceived social support to health outcomes, attempt to reveal the neural substrates of perceived social support will facilitate its application in a series of mental disorders. Perceived social support potentially relies on healthy interpersonal relationships calling for cognitive processes like perspective taking, empathy and theory of mind. Interestingly, functional activations and connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) are extensively involved in these interpersonal skills. As a result, it is proposed that synchronous activities among brain regions within the DMN will correlate with self-report of perceived social support. In the present study, we tried to investigate the associations between coherence among the DMN regions and perceived social support at resting state. A total of 333 (145 men) participants were directed to fulfill the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) after a 484-seconds functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning without any task. As a result, seed-based functional connectivity and power spectrum analyses revealed that heightened synchronicity among the DMN regions was associated with better performance on perceived social support. Moreover, results in the present study were independent of different methods, structural changes, and general cognitive performance.
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Title When “Your” reward is the same as “My” reward: Self-construal priming shifts neural responses to own vs. friends' rewards
Author Varnum ME, Shi Z, Chen A, Qiu J, & Han S.
Journal NeuroImage
Year 2014
Abstract Is it possible for neural responses to others' rewards to be as strong as those for the self? Although prior fMRI studies have demonstrated that watching others get rewards can activate one's own reward centers, such vicarious reward activationhasalwaysbeenlessstrongthan responses to rewards for oneself. In the present study we manipulated participants' self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) and found that, when an independent selfconstrual was primed, subjects showed greater activation in the bilateral ventral striatum in response to winning money for the self (vs. for a friend) during a gambling game.However, priming an interdependent self-construal resulted in comparable activation in these regions in response to winning money for the self and for a friend. Our findings suggest that interdependence may cause people to experience rewards for a close other as strongly as they experience rewards for the self.
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Title Mis-binding of Color and Motion in Human Visual Cortex. (Cooperation publication)
Author Zhang X, Qiu J, Zhang Y., Han S, & Fang F.
Journal Current Biology
Year 2014
Abstract A fundamental challenge for the visual system is to integrate visual features into a coherent scene, known as the binding problem. The neural mechanisms of feature binding are hard to identify because of difficulties in separating active feature binding from feature co-occurence. In previous studies on feature binding [1-5], visual features were superimposed and presented simultaneously. Neurons throughout visual cortex are known to code multiple features [6]. Therefore, the observed binding effects could be due to the physical co-occurrence of features and the sensory representation of feature pairings. It is uncertain whether the mechanisms responsible for perceptual binding were actually recruited [7, 8]. To address this issue, we performed psychophysical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to investigate the neural mechanisms of a steady-state misbinding of color and motion [9], because feature misbinding is probably the most striking evidence for the active existence of the binding mechanisms [10]. We found that adapting to the color-motion misbinding generated the color-contingent motion aftereffect, as well as the color-contingent motion adaptation effect in visual cortex. Notably, V2 exhibited the strongest adaptation effect, which significantly correlated with the aftereffect across subjects. Furthermore, effective connectivity analysis using dynamic causal modeling showed that the misbinding was closely associated with enhanced feedback from V4 and V5 to V2. These findings provide strong evidence for active feature binding in early visual cortex and suggest a critical role of reentrant connections from specialized intermediate areas to early visual cortex in this process.
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Title Neuroanatomical Differences between Men and Women in Help-Seeking Coping Strategy (in press)
Author Li HJ, Sun JZ, Zhang QL, Wei DT, Li WF, Jackson T, Glenn H, Qiu J.
Journal Scientific Report
Year 2014
Abstract Help seeking (HS) is a core coping strategy that is directed towards obtaining support, advice, or assistance as means of managing stress. Women have been found to use more HS than men. Neural correlates of sex differences have also been reported in prefrontal-limbic system (PLS) regions that are linked to stress and coping, yet structural differences between men and women relating to HS in the PLS are still unknown. Thus, the association between gray matter volume (GMV) and HS was investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a large healthy sample (126 men and 156 women). Results indicated women reported more HS than men did. VBM results showed that the relation between HS scores and GMV differed between men and women in regions of the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex extending to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex(OFC/sgACC). Among women, higher HS scores were associated with smaller GMV in these areas while a positive correlation between GMV and HS scores was observed among men. These results remained significant after controlling for general intelligence, stress, anxiety and depression. Thus, this study suggested that structural differences between men and women are correlated to characteristic brain regions known to be involved in the PLS which is considered critical in stress regulation.
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Title Association of creative achievement with cognitive flexibility by a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study (in press)
Author Chen QL, Yang WJ, Li WF, Wei DT, Li HJ, Qiao L, Zhang QL, Qiu J.
Journal NeuroImage
Year 2014
Abstract Although researchers generally concur that creativity involves the production of novel and useful products, the neural basis of creativity remains elusive due to the complexity of the cognitive processes involved. Recent studies have shown that highly creative individuals displayed more cognitive flexibility. However, direct evidence supporting the relationship between creativity and cognitive flexibility has rarely been investigated using both structural and functional neuroimaging techniques. We used a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis to investigate the relationship between individual creativity ability assessed by the creative achievement questionnaire (CAQ), and regional gray matter volume (GMV), as well as intrinsic functional connectivity. Results showed that CAQ scores negatively correlated with GMV in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral dorsal ACC (dACC) extending to supplementary motor area, but positively correlated with GMV in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Further functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher creative achievement was inversely associated with the strength of rsFC between the dACC and medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), right middle frontal gyrus, and left orbito-frontal insula. Moreover, the association between the dACC-mSFG connectivity and CAQ scores was mediated by cognitive flexibility, assessed by a task-switching paradigm. These findings indicate that individual differences in creative achievement are associated with both brain structure and corresponding intrinsic functional connectivity involved in cognitive flexibility and deliberate creative processing. Furthermore, dACC-mSFG connectivity may affect creative achievement through its impact on cognitive flexibility.
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Title Function and Structure of Human Left Fusiform Cortex Are Closely Associated with Perceptual Learning of Faces
Author Bi TY, Chen J, Zhou JG, He Y, Fang F
Journal Current Biology
Year 2014
Abstract Training can lead to long-lasting improvement in our perceptual ability, which is referred to as perceptual learning. Unraveling its neural mechanisms has proved difficult. With functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we addressed this issue by searching for the neural correlates of perceptual learning of face views over a long time course. Human subjects were trained to perform a face view discrimination task. Their behavioral performance and MRI signals were measured before, immediately after, and 1 month after training. We found that, across individual subjects, their behavioral learning effects correlated with the stability improvement of spatial activity pattern in the left fusiform cortex immediately after and 1 month after training. We also found that the thickness of the left fusiform cortex before training could predict subjects’ behavioral learning effects. These findings, for the first time, not only suggest that, remarkably, the improved pattern stability contributes to the long-term mechanisms of perceptual learning, but also provide strong and converging evidence for the pivotal role of the left fusiform cortex in adaptive face processing.
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Title Regional gray matter volume and anxiety-related trait interact to predict somatic complaints in non-clinical sample.
Author Wei DT, Li WF, Chen, QL., Li HJ, Hao X, Zhang L, Zhang QL, Qiu J
Journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience(SCAN)
Year 2014
Abstract Somatic complaints can be important features of an individual s expression of anxiety. Anxiety-related traits are also risk factors for somatic symptoms. However, it is not known which neuroanatomical mechanisms may be responsible for this relationship. In this study, our first step was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approaches to investigate the neuroanatomical basis underlying somatic complaints in a large sample of healthy subjects. We found a significant positive correlation between somatic complaints and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) volume adjacent to the entorhinal cortex. Further analysis revealed that the interaction between PHG volume/entorhinal cortex and neuroticism-anxiety (N-Anx) predicted somatic complaints. Specifically, somatic complaints were associated with higher N-Anx for individuals with increased PHG volume. These findings suggest that increased PHG volume and higher trait anxiety can predict vulnerability to somatic complaints in the general population.
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Title Examining Brain Structures Associated with Perceived Stress in a Large Sample of Young Adults Via Voxel-Based Morphometry
Author Li HJ, Li WF, Wei DT, Chen, QL., Jackson, T., Zhang QL, Qiu J
Journal Neuroimage
Year 2014
Abstract Perceived stress reflects the extent to which situations are appraised as stressful at a given point in one's life. Past brain imaging studies have examined activation patterns underlying the stress response, yet focal differences in brain structures related to perceived stress are not well understood, especially when considering gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structures simultaneously. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate relations between GM/WM volume and perceived stress levels in a large young adult sample. Participants (138 men, 166 women) completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen et al., 1983) and underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scan. Higher PSS scores were associated with larger GM volume in a cluster that included regions in the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform cortex, and entorhinal cortex and smaller GM volume in a cluster that included regions of the right insular cortex. Higher PSS scores were also related to smaller WM volume in a cluster that included the body of the corpus callosum. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for effects of general intelligence, socioeconomic status, and depression. Together,findings suggest a unique structural basis for individual differences in perceived stress, distributed across different GM and WM regions of the brain.
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Title Brain Structure Links Trait Creativity to Openness to Experience.
Author Li WF, Li, XT, Zhang QL, Qiu, J, Liu, J.
Journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience(SCAN)
Year 2014
Abstract Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge, and risk-taking. The current study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM)to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test,in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g., novel association, conceptual integration, and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTGvolume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual’s trait creativity.
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Title Regional Gray Matter Volume is associated with Rejection Sensitivity: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.
Author Sun JZ, Li HJ, Li WF, Wei DT, Hitchman, G., Zhang QL, Qiu J
Journal Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience
Year 2014
Abstract Rejection sensitivity (RS) can be defined as the disposition that one tends to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to rejection. High-RS individuals are more likely to suffer mental disorders. Previous studies have investigated brain activity during social rejection using different kinds of rejection paradigms and have provided neural evidence of individual differences in response to rejection cues, but the association between individual differences in RS and brain structure has never been investigated. In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate the relationship between gray matter volume (GMV) and RS in a large healthy sample of 150 men and 188 women. The participants completed the RS Questionnaire and underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scan. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation between regional GMV and RS scores, adjusting for age, sex, and total brain GMV. These results showed that GMV in the region of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus was negatively associated with RS, and GMV in the region of the inferior temporal gyrus was positively correlated with RS. These findings suggest a relationship between individual differences in RS and GMV in brain regions that are primarily related to social cognition.
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Title Increased resting functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex in Creativity by means of Cognitive Stimulation.
Author Wei DT, Yang, JY., Li WF, Wang, KC., Zhang QL, Qiu J
Journal Cortex
Year 2014
Abstract Creativity is imperative to the progression of civilization and is central to cultural life. Many neuroimaging studies have investigated the patterns of functional activity in the brain during different creative tasks, and the structural and functional characteristics of the highly creative individuals. However, few studies have investigated resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the brain related to individual differences in creativity, and it is still unclear whether the RSFC underlying creativity can be changed by training. The present study therefore used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RsfMRI) to investigate the relationship between RSFC and creativity (divergent thinking, measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) to explore whether RSFC can be influenced by cognitive stimulation. The results of 269 adults showed that creativity was positively correlated with the strength of RSFC between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the middle temporal gyrus (mTG). In addition, behavioral data showed that cognitive stimulation was successful in enhancing originality in a subset of the original participants (n ¼34). Most interesting, we found that there was also a significantly increased RSFC between the mPFC and the mTG by analyzing the data of Rs-fMRI after creativity training. Taken together, these results suggest that increased RSFC between mPFC and mTG, which belong to the default mode network might be crucial to creativity, and that RSFC between the mPFC and mTG can be improved by means of cognitive stimulation (reflecting creativity training-induced changes in functional connectivity, especially in the lower creativity individuals who had lower scores of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking).
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Title Neural plasticity in high-level visual cortex underlying object perceptual learning
Author Bi TY, Fang F
Journal Front. Biol.
Year 2013
Abstract With intensive training, human can achieve impressive behavioral improvement on various perceptual tasks. This phenomenon, termed perceptual learning, has long been considered as a hallmark of the plasticity of sensory neural system. Not surprisingly, high-level vision, such as object perception, can also be improved by perceptual learning. Here we review recent psychophysical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of training on object selective cortex, such as monkey inferior temporal cortex and human lateral occipital area. Evidences show that learning leads to an increase in object selectivity at the single neuron level and/or the neuronal population level. Thesefindings indicate that high-level visual cortex in humans is highly plastic and visual experience can strongly shape neural functions of these areas. At the end of the review, we discuss several important future directions in this area.
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Title Recovering Directed Networks in Neuroimaging Datasets Using Partially Conditioned Granger Causality
Author Wu GR, Liao W,Stramaglia S, Chen HF, Marinazzo D
Journal Brain Connectivity
Year 2013
Abstract Recovering directed pathways of information transfer between brain areas is an important issue in neuroscience and helps to shed light on the brain function in several physiological and cognitive states. Granger causality (GC) analysis is a valuable tool to detect directed dynamical connectivity, and it is being increasingly used. Unfortunately, this approach encounters some limitations in particularly when applied to neuroimaging datasets, often consisting in short and noisy data and for which redundancy plays an important role. In this article, we address one of these limitations, namely, the computational and conceptual problems arising when conditional GC, necessary to disambiguate direct and mediated influences, is used on short and noisy datasets of many variables, as it is typically the case in some electroencephalography (EEG) protocols and in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that considering GC in the framework of information theory we can limit the conditioning to a limited number of variables chosen as the most informative, obtaining more stable and reliable results both in EEG and fMRI data.
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Title Mapping the Voxel-Wise Effective Connectome in Resting State fMRI
Author Wu GR, Stramaglia S, Chen HF, Liao W, Marinazzo D
Journal PLOS ONE
Year 2013
Abstract A network approach to brain and dynamics opens new perspectives towards understanding of its function. The functional connectivity from functional MRI recordings in humans is widely explored at large scale, and recently also at the voxel level. The networks of dynamical directed connections are far less investigated, in particular at the voxel level. To reconstruct full brain effective connectivity network and study its topological organization, we present a novel approach to multivariate Granger causality which integrates information theory and the architecture of the dynamical network to efficiently select a limited number of variables. The proposed method aggregates conditional information sets according to community organization, allowing to perform Granger causality analysis avoiding redundancy and overfitting even for high-dimensional and short datasets, such as time series from individual voxels in fMRI. We for the first time depicted the voxel-wise hubs of incoming and outgoing information, called Granger causality density (GCD), as a complement to previous repertoire of functional and anatomical connectomes. Analogies with these networks have been presented in most part of default mode network; while differences suggested differences in the specific measure of centrality. Our findings could open the way to a new description of global organization and information influence of brain function. With this approach is thus feasible to study the architecture of directed networks at the voxel level and individuating hubs by investigation of degree, betweenness and clustering coefficient.
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Title A blind deconvolution approach to recover effective connectivity brain networks from resting state fMRI data
Author Wu GR, Liao W, Stramaglia S, Ding JR, Chen HF, Marinazzo D
Journal Medical Image Analysis
Year 2013
Abstract A great improvement to the insight on brain function that we can get from fMRI data can come from effective connectivity analysis, in which the flow of information between even remote brain regions is inferred by the parameters of a predictive dynamical model. As opposed to biologically inspired models, some techniques as Granger causality (GC) are purely data-driven and rely on statistical prediction and temporal precedence. While powerful and widely applicable, this approach could suffer from two main limitations when applied to BOLD fMRI data: confounding effect of hemodynamic response function (HRF) and conditioning to a large number of variables in presence of short time series. For task-related fMRI, neural population dynamics can be captured by modeling signal dynamics with explicit exogenous inputs; for resting-state fMRI on the other hand, the absence of explicit inputs makes this task more difficult, unless relying on some specific prior physiological hypothesis. In order to overcome these issues and to allow a more general approach, here we present a simple and novel blind-deconvolution technique for BOLD-fMRI signal. In a recent study it has been proposed that relevant information in resting-state fMRI can be obtained by inspecting the discrete events resulting in relatively large amplitude BOLD signal peaks. Following this idea, we consider resting fMRI as ‘spontaneous event-related’, we individuate point processes corresponding to signal fluctuations with a given signature, extract a region-specific HRF and use it in deconvolution, after following an alignment procedure. Coming to the second limitation, a fully multivariate conditioning with short and noisy data leads to computational problems due to overfitting. Furthermore, conceptual issues arise in presence of redundancy. We thus apply partial conditioning to a limited subset of variables in the framework of information theory, as recently proposed. Mixing these two improvements we compare the differences between BOLD and deconvolved BOLD level effective networks and draw some conclusions.
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Title Neural representations for the generation of inventive conceptions inspired by adaptive feature optimization of biological species.
Author Zhang H, Liu J, & Zhang, Q.L.
Journal Cortex
Year 2013
Abstract Inventive conceptions amount to creative ideas for designing devices that are both original and useful. The generation of inventive conceptions is a key element of the inventive process. However, neural mechanisms of the inventive process remain poorly understood. Here we employed functional feature association tasks and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neural substrates for the generation of inventive conceptions. The functional MRI (fMRI) data revealed significant activations at Brodmann area (BA) 47 in the left inferior frontal gyrus and at BA 18 in the left lingual gyrus, when participants performed biological functional feature association tasks compared with non-biological functional feature association tasks. Our results suggest that the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) is associated with novelty-based representations formed by the generation and selection of semantic relatedness, and the left lingual gyrus (BA 18) is involved in relevant visual imagery in processing of semantic relatedness. The findings might shed light on neural mechanisms underlying the inventive process.
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Title Detection of deception based on fMRI activation patterns underlying the production of a deceptive response and receiving feedback about the success of the deception after a mock murder crime.
Author Cui Q, Vanman, E., Wei, D. T., Yang, W.J. Jia, L. & Zhang, Q.L.
Journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience(SCAN)
Year 2013
Abstract The ability of a deceiver to track a victim s ongoing judgments about the truthfulness of the deceit can be critical for successful deception. However,no study has yet investigated the neural circuits underlying receiving a judgment about one s lie. To explore this issue, we used a modified Guilty Knowledge Test in a mock murder situation to simultaneously record the neural responses involved in producing deception and later when judgments of that deception were made. Producing deception recruited the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), right ventral lateral prefrontal (VLPF) areas and right striatum, among which the activation of the right VLPF contributed mostly to diagnosing the identities of the participants, correctly diagnosing 81.25% of murderers and 81.25% of innocents . Moreover, the participant s response when their deception was successful uniquely recruited the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral IPLs, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum, among which the right IPL contributed mostly to diagnosing participants identities, correctly diagnosing 93.75% of murderers and 87.5% of innocents. This study shows that neural activity associated with being a successful liar (or not) is a feasible indicator for detecting lies and may be more valid than neural activity associated with producing deception.
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Title Exposure to traumatic experiences is associated with abnormal neural mechanism during charitable donation.
Author Wei DT, Wang, KC., Shen, YM., Du, X., Li WF, Dupuis-Roy, N., Qiu J, Zhang QL
Journal Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
Year 2013
Abstract Previous studies suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be associated with dysfunctional reward processing. At present, little is known about the neural mechanisms of reward-related processing during a charitable donation task in trauma survivors who do not go on to develop PTSD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of charitable donation in non-PTSD survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Results showed that activations in the striatum of trauma survivors were reduced in both the low donation (donated a small amount to the Red Cross) and the high donation conditions (donated a large amount to the Red Cross) compared with the healthy controls. Furthermore, the trauma survivors also exhibited less activity in the insula than the healthy controls in the high donation condition. Thesefindings suggest that abnormal reward-related activations might be associated with dysfunctions in the reward pathway of trauma survivors. Also, we discuss the possibility that traumatic experiences attenuate the reactivity of reward-related brain areas to positive emotions (as induced by advantageous donations).
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Title Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Verbal Creative Thinking to Cerebral Structures: An Optimal Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.
Author Zhu F, Zhang Q, Qiu J.
Journal PLOS ONE
Year 2013
Abstract Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxelbased morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.
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Title The neural circuitry of reward processing in complex social comparison: evidence from an event-related fMRI study.
Author Du X, Meng Zhang, DongTao, Wei, WenFu, Li, QingLin, Zhang, Jiang Qiu.
Journal PLOS ONE
Year 2013
Abstract In this study, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which the brain activity in a complex social comparison context. One true subject and two pseudo-subjects were asked to complete a simple number estimate task at the same time which including upward and downward comparisons. Two categories of social comparison rewards (fair and unfair rewards distributions) were mainly presented by comparing the true subject with other two pseudo-subjects. Particularly, there were five conditions of unfair distribution when all the three subjects were correct but received different rewards. Behavioral data indicated that the ability to selfregulate was important in satisfaction judgment when the subject perceived an unfair reward distribution. fMRI data indicated that the interaction between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was important in self-regulation under specific conditions in complex social comparison, especially under condition of reward processing when there were two different reward values and the subject failed to exhibit upward comparison.
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Title Category-Selective Attention Modulates Unconscious Processes in the Middle Occipital Gyrus.
Author Tu S, Qiu J., Martens, U., & Zhang QL
Journal Consciousness and Cognition
Year 2013
Abstract Many studies have revealed the top-down modulation (spatial attention, attentional load, etc.) on unconscious processing. However, there is little research about how categoryselective attention could modulate the unconscious processing. In the present study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the results showed that category-selective attention modulated unconscious face/tool processing in the middle occipital gyrus (MOG). Interestingly, MOG effects were of opposed direction for face and tool processes. During unconscious face processing, activation in MOG decreased under the face-selective attention compared with tool-selective attention. This result was in line with the predictive coding theory. During unconscious tool processing, however, activation in MOG increased under the tool-selective attention compared with face-selective attention. The different effects might be ascribed to an interaction between top-down category-selective processes and bottom-up processes in the partial awareness level as proposed byKouider, De Gardelle, Sackur, and Dupoux (2010). Specifically, we suppose an ‘‘excessive activation’’ hypothesis.
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Title Rumitation mediates the relationship between structural variations in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and sensitivity to negative life events.
Author Qiao L, Wei,D.T., Li,W.F., Chen,Q.L., Che,X.W., Li,B.B., Li,Y.D, Qiu,J., Zhang,Q.L.,Liu Y.J.
Journal Neuroscience
Year 2013
Abstract Individuals have different levels of stress sensitivity. An individual’s predisposition to experience negative life events (NLEs) may make him/her more vulnerable to a series of psychopathological and physical diseases. However, the neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in sensitivity to NLEs remain unknown. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was used to identify the gray matter (GM) associations of individual differences in sensitivity to NLEs measured by adolescent self-rating life events checklist. Results showed that there was a positive association between individual NLEs sensitivity and regional GM volume (rGMV) in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). GM was mostly evident in the left frontal operculum and a small part of the left middle frontal gyrus. This region was thought to play an important role in introception. Importantly, our study revealed that rumination served as a mediator between the rGMV of the VLPFC and individual NLEs sensitivity. These findings suggest that people with greater VLPFC might be more inclined to ruminate and the ruminative response style might make them more sensitive to NLEs.
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Title Neural correlates of the perception for novel objects.
Author Zhang H, Liu J, & Zhang, Q.L.
Journal PLOS ONE
Year 2013
Abstract
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Title Gray matter correlates of dispositional optimism: A voxel-based morphometry study.
Author Yang JY, Wei DT, Wang KC, & Qiu J
Journal Neuroscience Letters
Year 2013
Abstract Dispositional optimism is an important product of human evolution. This individual difference variable plays a core role in human experience. Dispositional optimism is beneficial to physical and psychological wellbeing. Previous task-related neuroimaging studies on dispositional optimism were limited by small sample sizes, and did not examine individual differences in dispositional optimism related to brain structure. Thus, the current study used voxel-based morphometry and the revised Life Orientation Test to investigate individual dispositional optimism and its association with brain structure in 361 healthy participants. The results showed that individual dispositional optimism was associated with larger gray matter volume of a cluster of areas that included the left thalamus/left pulvinar that extended to the left parahippocampal gyrus. These findings suggest a biological basis for individual dispositional optimism, distributed across different gray matter regions of the brain.
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Title Brain mechanisms of valuable scientific problem finding inspired by heuristic knowledge.
Author Tong DD, Li, W. F., Dai, T. E., Nusbaum, H. C., Qiu J, & Zhang QL
Journal Experimental Brain Research
Year 2013
Abstract Heuristics through the application of heuristic knowledge to the creation of imitation devices may be one of the most common processes in scientific innovation. In particular, heuristics suggests that innovation includes the automatic activation of heuristic knowledge and formation of novel associations between heuristic knowledge and problem situations. In this study, 76 scientific innovation problem situations were selected as materials. Among these, 36 contain related heuristic knowledge and 40 have no such information. Through functional magnetic resonance imaging, the learning–testing paradigm was used to explore the brain mechanisms of scientific problem finding inspired by heuristic knowledge. Participants were asked to find a problem on the basis of a given innovation problem situation. Two scenarios were presented: finding scientific problems with related heuristic knowledge and finding conventional problems without related heuristic knowledge. The authors assumed that the regions in the brain significantly activated by the finding scientific problems with related heuristic knowledge condition compared with the finding normal problems without related heuristic knowledge condition are relevant to the brain mechanisms of scientific problem finding inspired by heuristic knowledge. The first scenario more significantly activated the left precuneus and left angular gyrus than did the second scenario. These findings suggest that the precuneus is relevant to the successful storage and retrieval of heuristic knowledge and that the left angular gyrus is involved in the formation of novel associations between heuristic knowledge and problem situations for finding scientific problems.
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Title Brain activity in using heuristic prototype to solve insight problems.
Author Tong DD, Zhu, H. X, Li, W. F. Yang, W. J. Qiu J & Zhang QL
Journal Behavioural Brain Research
Year 2013
Abstract When confronted with a real-world problem, heuristic knowledge and experience can guide the solution of a specific technical problem as the key step toward innovation. In particular, a heuristic prototype must be used correctly to cue the technical problem that exists in a particular situation. The present study selected an innovative paradigm and scientific innovation materials to investigate the neural basis of insight induced by heuristic prototypes using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The day prior to undergoing fMRI scanning, participants were asked to solve 42 difficult technical problems that scientists might have already encountered but were unknown to the participants. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, the same participants were randomly presented with 84 prototypes classified into two types: related prototypes (RPs), which were useful for solving previously encountered problems, and unrelated prototypes (UPs), which sometimes did not contribute to problem solving. While being scanned, participants were asked to assess whether a prototype is relevant to any of the technical problems. This study comprised two conditions: solving technical problems when presented with a related heuristic prototype and failing to solve technical problems using unrelated heuristic prototypes. The authors assumed that the regions significantly activated by the RP condition, compared with the UP condition, reflected brain activity related to the role of heuristic prototypes in scientific insight. fMRI data showed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus (left DLFPC, BA9) and the left angular gyrus (left AG, BA39) were more significantly activated when presented with RPs than with UPs. The results suggest that the DLPFC may be involved in the automatic retrieval of technical problems and breaking of mental sets. Moreover, the left AG may be involved in forming novel associations between technical problems and related prototypes.
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Title The Electrophysiological Correlates of Scientific Innovation Induced by Heuristic Information.
Author Luo JL, Du, X. M., Tang, X. C., Zhang, A.T., Li, H. J., & Zhang QL
Journal Creativity Research Journal
Year 2013
Abstract In this study, novel and old scientific innovations (NSI and OSI) were selected as materials to explore the electrophysiological correlates of scientific innovation induced by heuristic information. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to do so, college students solved NSI problems (for which they did not know the answers) and OSI problems (for which they knew the answers). A new experimental paradigm (heuristic information learning– problems testing model) was adopted to make subjects actively find a solution. The results showed that the P3 amplitude was higher for OSI than for NSI between 360 and 430 ms after onset of the problem stimuli. This finding most likely reflects an automatic matching process based on the known answer retrieval, which would be easier for OSI than NSI problems. However, the N4 amplitude was higher for NSI than for OSI between 430 and 500 ms and a greater negativity in the NSI (in comparison with OSI) developed between 500 and 900 ms. This pattern could reflect the generation of novel solutions due to the application of heuristic information (retrieved from memory) during NSI problems solving.
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Title Different neural substrates underlying directed forgetting for negative and neutral images: An event-related potential study.
Author Yang WJ, Liu PD, Xiao X, Li XP, Zeng C, Qiu J, Zhang QL.
Journal Brain Research
Year 2012
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the different neural correlations of directed forgetting for emotionally negative and neutral images in 17 healthy individuals using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral findings showed that the task yielded a robust directed forgetting effect for both neutral and negative images: more to-be-remembered than to-be-forgotten images were recognized. ERPs were recorded as participants viewed different valence images (negative/ neutral) and were given different instructions, including remember (R) or forget (F) commands. Enhanced late parietal positive potentials were observed for negative images during image viewing. In the 200–300 ms time window, F instructions elicited a larger N2 than did R instructions and successful implementation of F instructions (F-miss) appeared more negative over the frontal region comparing with the unintentional forgetting (R-miss), suggesting that F instructions trigger a frontal mechanism to inhibit the processing of previously presented images. More important, F instructions following emotionally negative images elicited an enhanced frontal N2 effect than neutral images. This result suggests that forgetting negative stimuli is more laborious. In addition, within the 300–400 ms time window, R instructions elicited a larger P3 response than did F instructions and successful implementation of the R instructions (R-hit) appeared more positive than the unintentional remembering (F-hit) over the posterior scalp region. This posterior wave might reflect rehearsal and memory consolidation process.
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Title Neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype.
Author Luo JL, Li WF, Qiu J, Liu YJ, Zhang QL.
Journal PLOS ONE
Year 2012
Abstract A number of major inventions in history have been based on bionic imitation. Heuristics, by applying biological systems to the creation of artificial devices and machines, might be one of the most critical processes in scientific innovation. In particular, prototype heuristics propositions that innovation may engage automatic activation of a prototype such as a biological system to form novel associations between a prototype’s function and problem-solving. We speculated that the cortical dissociation between the automatic activation and forming novel associations in innovation is critical point to heuristic creativity. In the present study, novel and old scientific innovations (NSI and OSI) were selected as experimental materials in using learning-testing paradigm to explore the neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype. College students were required to resolve NSI problems (to which they did not know the answers) and OSI problems (to which they knew the answers). From two fMRI experiments, our results showed that the subjects could resolve NSI when provided with heuristic prototypes. In Experiment 1, it was found that the lingual gyrus (LG; BA18) might be related to prototype heuristics in college students resolving NSI after learning a relative prototype. In Experiment 2, the LG (BA18) and precuneus (BA31) were significantly activated for NSI compared to OSI when college students learned all prototypes one day before the test. In addition, the mean beta-values of these brain regions of NSI were all correlated with the behavior accuracy of NSI. As our hypothesis indicated, the findings suggested that the LG might be involved in forming novel associations using heuristic information, while the precuneus might be involved in the automatic activation of heuristic prototype during scientific innovation.
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Title Kernel canonical-correlation Granger causality for multiple time series
Author Wu GR, Duan XJ, Liao W, Gao Q, Chen HF
Journal Physical Review
Year 2011
Abstract Canonical-correlation analysis as a multivariate statistical technique has been applied to multivariate Granger causality analysis to infer information flow in complex systems. It shows unique appeal and great superiority over the traditional vector autoregressive method, due to the simplified procedure that detects causal interaction between multiple time series, and the avoidance of potential model estimation problems. However, it is limited to the linear case. Here, we extend the framework of canonical correlation to include the estimation of multivariate nonlinear Granger causality for drawing inference about directed interaction. Its feasibility and effectiveness are verified on simulated data.
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Title Multiscale Causal Connectivity Analysis by Canonical Correlation: Theory and Application to Epileptic Brain
Author Wu GR, Chen FY, Kang DZ, Zhang XY, Marinazzo D, Chen HF
Journal IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering
Year 2011
Abstract Multivariate Granger causality is a well-established approach for inferring information flow in complex systems, and it is being increasingly applied to map brain connectivity. Traditional Granger causality is based on vector autoregressive (AR) or mixed autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, which are potentially affected by errors in parameter estimation and may be contaminated by zero-lag correlation, notably when modeling neuroimaging data. To overcome this issue, we present here an extended canonical correlation approach to measure multivariate Granger causal interactions among time series. The procedure includes a reduced rank step for calculating canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and extends the definition of causality including instantaneous effects, thus avoiding the potential estimation problems of AR (or ARMA) models. We tested this approach on simulated data and confirmed its practical utility by exploring local network connectivity at different scales in the epileptic brain analyzing scalp and depth-EEG data during an interictal period.
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Title Emotional arousal to negative information after traumatic experiences: an event-related brain potential study.
Author Wei DT, Qiu J.
Journal Neuroscience
Year 2011
Abstract Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during an emotional Stroop task were measured in two groups of participants: 14 participants who had experienced the great Sichuan earthquake (earthquake group) and 14 participants who did not experience the earthquake (control group). ERP data showed that negative words elicited a more negative P2 than positive words in the earthquake group. Moreover, negative words also elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N280-380 effect) than positive words in the earthquake group, while this effect was not found in the control group. We suggest that the N280-380 effect may reflect heightened emotional arousal to negative words due to personal experience of a traumatic event. Dipole analysis localized the N280-380 to the parahippocampal gyrus and the cuneus, which we suggest may be related to the automatic recollection of the traumatic experience.
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Title Learning to Discriminate Face Views
Author Bi TY, Chen N, Weng Q, He D, Fang F
Journal J Neurophysiol
Year 2010
Abstract Learning to discriminate face views.J Neurophysiol104: 3305–3311, 2010. First published July 14, 2010; doi:10.1152/jn.00286.2010. Although perceptual learning of simple visual features has been studied extensively and intensively for many years, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object recognition. In a series of seven experiments, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysical methods. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e., 30°) over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to 6 mo. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field, and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. These results shed light on the mechanisms of the perceptual learning of face view discrimination. They suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity-invariant face views are represented.
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Title The impact of social comparison on the neural substrates of reward processing: An Event-Related Potential study.
Author Qiu J, Yu CY, Li H, Jou, J., Tu S, Wang T, Wei DT, Zhang QL.
Journal Neuroimage
Year 2010
Abstract Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore the electrophysiological correlates of reward processing in the social comparison context when subjects performed a simple number estimation task that entailed monetary rewards for correct answers. Three social comparison stimulus categories (three relative reward levels/self reward related to the other subject's) were mainly prepared: Self: Other =1:2 (Disadvantageous inequity condition); Self: Other =1:1 (Equity condition); and Self: Other =2:1 (Advantageous inequity condition). Results showed that: both Disadvantageous and Advantageous inequity elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N350–550) than did Equity between 350 and 550 ms, and the generators of N350–550 were localized near the parahippocampal gyrus and the medial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex, which might be related to monitor and control reward prediction error during reward processing. Then, Disadvantageous and Advantageous inequity both elicited a more late negative complex (LNC1 and LNC2) than did Equity between 550 and 750 ms. The generators of LNC1 and LNC2 were both localized near the caudate nucleus, which might be related to reward processing under social comparison.
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Title Neural correlates of the "Aha" experiences: Evidence from an fMRI Study of insight problem solving.
Author Qiu J, Li H, Jou, J., Liu J, Luo YJ, Feng TY Wu, Z.Z., Zhang QL.
Journal Cortex
Year 2010
Abstract In the present study, we used learning–testing paradigm to examine brain activation of ‘‘Aha’’ effects with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during solving Chinese logogriphs. Blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts between Aha and No-aha conditions were measured. Increased activities in the precuneus (BA 19/7), the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus (BA 9/6), the inferior occipital gyrus (BA 18), and the cerebellum were specifically associated with the ‘‘Aha’’ effects. The results indicate that (1) the precuneus might be involved in successful prototype events retrieval, (2) the left inferior frontal/middle frontal gyrus might be involved in forming novel association and breaking mental sets, (3) the inferior occipital gyrus and the cerebellum might be involved in re-arrangement of visual stimulus and deployment of attentional resources.
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Title Spatiotemporal cortical activation underlying self-referencial processing evoked by self-hand.
Author Su YH, Chen AT, Qiu J, Wei DT, Tu S.
Journal Biological Psychology
Year 2010
Abstract Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore the electrophysiological correlates of selfreferencial processing when subjects were asked to judge whether the stimuli (their hands) were their own or not. ERP results showed that: first, own hand elicited a greater positive component (P350–500) than did other hand in the time window of 350–500 ms, and the generator of P350–500 was localized in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which might be related to retrieval and identification of selfreferencial information due to their sensitivity to self-hand. Second, own hand elicited a more positive component (LPC) than did other hand in the later time window. Dipole analysis revealed that the generators were localized in the parahippocampal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus, which might be involved in making a self-referencial decision based on retrieval of self-hand information.
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Title The role of gaze direction in face viewpoint aftereffect
Author Bi TY, Su JZ, Chen J, Fang F
Journal Vision Research
Year 2009
Abstract Face viewpoint aftereffect is a visual illusion that, after adaptation to a face side view, the perceived view direction of the same face subsequently presented near its front view is biased in a direction opposite to that of the adapted view. Eye gaze is a unique component in face not only because its direction is relatively independent of face view direction, but also because it is a primary cue for conveying social attention. Here, we studied the contribution of gaze direction adaptation to the formation of face viewpoint aftereffect. We found that a tiny (in terms of relative area) change of gaze direction in adapting face stimuli could induce a dramatic reduction in the magnitude of face viewpoint aftereffect. However, vertical inversion of the face stimuli almost abolished the reduction. Implications of these findings about face view representation and gaze direction representation are discussed.
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Title The effect of crowding on orientation-selective adaptation in human early visual cortex
Author Bi TY, Cai P, Zhou TG, Fang F
Journal Journal of Vision
Year 2009
Abstract Crowding is the identification difficulty for a target in the presence of nearbyflankers. Based on psychophysicalfindings, many theories have been proposed to explain crowding at multiple levels. However, little is known about its neural mechanism. In this study, we combined psychophysical and fMRI adaptation techniques to search for the cortical locus of crowding. In the psychophysical experiment, when subjects’ attention was controlled, we found that the threshold elevation aftereffect (TEAE) was not affected by crowding, regardless of the contrast level of adapting stimulus. In the fMRI experiment, the orientation-selective fMRI adaptation in V1 was not affected by crowding either. However, downstream from V1, we found that crowding weakened the adaptation effect in V2 and V3. Our results demonstrate that crowding occurs beyond V1 and provide one of thefirst pieces of direct evidence supporting the two-stage model of crowding (D. M. Levi, 2008).
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Title The Müller–Lyer illusion seen by the brain: An event-related brain potentials study.
Author Qiu J, Li H, Liu Q, Zhang QL.
Journal Biological Psychology
Year 2008
Abstract In two experiments, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the neural correlates of a visual illusion effect in Mu ¨ller–Lyer illusion tasks (illusion stimuli) and baseline tasks (no-illusion stimuli). The behavioral data showed that the illusion stimuli indeed yielded an illusion effect. Scalp ERP analysis revealed its neurophysiological substrate: the Mu ¨ller–Lyer illusion tasks (Illusion tasks 1–3) elicited a more negative ERP deflection than did the baseline tasks about 400 ms after onset of the stimuli. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (Illusion task 2–Baseline task 1) and the original waveforms of the different conditions (Illusion tasks 2 and 3 and Baseline task 2) indicated that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/superior frontal cortex may contribute to the illusion effect, possibly in relation to high-level cognitive control. The results indicated that apparent distortions of the Mu ¨ller–Lyer illusion might be influenced by top-down control.
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Title The neural basis of analogical inference: An event-related potential study.
Author Qiu J, Li H, Chen AT, Zhang QL.
Journal Neuropsychologia
Year 2008
Abstract The spatiotemporal analysis of brain activation during the execution of easy analogy (EA) and difficult analogy (DA) tasks was investigated using high-density event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results showed that reasoning tasks (schema induction) elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N500–1000) than did the baseline task (BS) between 500 and 1000 ms. Dipole source analysis of difference waves (EA-BS and DA-BS) indicated that the negative components were both localized near the left thalamus, possibly associated with the retrieval of alphabetical information. Furthermore, DA elicited a more positive ERP component (P600–1000) than did EA in the same time window. Two generators of P600–1000 were located in the medial prefrontal cortex (BA10) and the left frontal cortex (BA6) which was possibly involved in integrating information in schema abstraction. In the stage of analogy mapping, a greater negativity (N400–600) in the reasoning tasks as compared to BS was found over fronto-central scalp regions. A generator of this effect was located in the left fusiform gyrus and was possibly related to associative memory and activation of schema. Then, a greater negativity in the reasoning tasks, in comparison to BS task, developed between 900–1200 ms (LNC1) and 2000–2500 ms (LNC2). Dipole source analysis (EA-BS) localized the generator of LNC1 in the left prefrontal cortex (BA 10) which was possibly related to mapping the schema to the target problem, and the generator of LNC2 in the left prefrontal cortex (BA 9) which was possibly related to deciding whether a conclusion correctly follows from the schema.
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Title The neural basis of conditional reasoning: An event-related potential study.
Author Qiu J, Li H, Huang XT, Zhang FH, Chen AT, Luo YJ, Zhang QL, Yuan H.
Journal Neuropsychologia
Year 2007
Abstract The spatiotemporal analysis of brain activation during the execution of conditional reasoning tasks (the four inference forms: Modus Ponens (MP), Modus Tollens (MT), affirming the consequent (AC), and denying the antecedent (DA)) and one baseline task (BS) was performed in 12 normal young adult participants using high-density event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results showed that the early components elicited by the five task types were not significantly different. Reasoning tasks elicited a more negative EPR deflection (N600) than did the BS task in the time window of 500–700 ms after onset of the minor premise. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (MP−BS) suggested that a generator localized in the left anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) was involved in the activation and the application of the inference rules. ERP components of the five tasks were similar in the subsequent time period between 700 and 1700 ms. Following that period, a greater negativity in the reasoning tasks, in comparison to the BS task, developed between 1700 and 2000 ms poststimulus over the left fronto-central scalp regions. A generator of this effect was located in the right anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) and was possibly related to cognitive control. The results indicate that the cingulate cortex was activated by conditional reasoning tasks with purely abstract materials and support the view that human reasoning is not a unified phenomenon but is content-sensitive.
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